大学英语四级长难句分析

1. I say you only live once and we work hard and what ’s the point if you cannot go on holiday. 我说你只活一次, 你不能度假,那我们这么努力的工作还有什么意义呢?

2. Since money is known to be one of the things most likely to bring a relationship to its knees, we should be grateful.

我们应该感恩,因为众所周知,钱是众多东西最有可能破坏一段关系的东西之一。

3. Kim Stephenson, an occupational psychologist, believes money is such a big deal because of what it symbolizes, which may be different things to men and women.

KS 相信钱是个大事情是因为它所象征的东西,对于男人和女人而言是不同的。

4. Tony Little, headmaster of Eton, warned that boys were being failed by the British education system because it had become too focused on girls.

TL 警告 男生正在被英国的教育体制所毁掉, 因为英国的教育体制太过于关注女生了。

5. Because boys generally have more acute

vision, learn best through touch, and are physically more active, they need to be given “hands-on ”lessons (亲手实践的) where they are allowed to walk around.

因为男生通常而言有更敏锐的视力,通过抚摸学得更好,而且在体力上也更活跃,他们需要给予可以随意四处走动的实践课。

6. Global warming is causing more than 300,000 deaths and about $125 billion in economic losses each year, according to a report by the Global Humanitarian Forum, an organization led by Kofi Annan, the former United Nations secretary general.

全球变暖导致了每年30多万人的死亡和大约1250亿的经济损失,根据最近的一个报告。

7. Roger Pielke Jr., a political scientist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who studies disaster trends, said the Forum’s report was “a methodological embarrassment ” because there was no way to distinguish deaths or economic losses related to human-driven global warming amid the much

larger losses resulting from the growth in populations and economic development in vulnerable regions.

RP 说这个论坛的报告在方法论上是一个令人尴尬的事情因为根本没有办法区分是由敏感地区的人口增长和经济发展所造成更大的损失还是由人类所引起的全球变换所造成的死亡或者经济损失。

8. Several recent studies have found that being randomly assigned to a roommate of another race can lead to increased tolerance but also to a greater likelihood of conflict.

最近几个研究发现随意地分配室友会不仅会导致更宽容,而且会导致更大可能性的冲突。

9. Pay has always been the biggest deterrent, as people with families often feel they cannot afford the drop in salary when moving to a university job.

薪水是最大的障碍,因为有家室的人会觉得如果他们去学校工作的话,他们承受不起薪水的减少

10. The biggest problem(chief/main) is that couples assume each other knows what ’s

going on with their fiancés, but they don’t. 最大的问题是夫妻之间以为对方知道他们的钱做了什么,但是他们不知道。

11. In a healthy relationship, you do not have to agree about money, but you have to talk about it.

健康的夫妻关系没有必要对钱达成一致,但是得讨论。

12. Boys at single-sex schools were said to be more likely to get involved in cultural and artistic activities that helped develop their emotional expressiveness, rather than feeling they had to conform to the “boy code ” of hiding their emotions to be a “real man”.

13. The findings of study go against received wisdom that boys do better when taught alongside girls.

14. But in single-sex schools teachers can tailor lessons to boys ’learning style, letting them move around the classroom and getting them

to compete in teams to prevent boredom, wrote the study ’s author, Abigail James, of the University of Virginia.

15. But even before its release, the report drew criticism from some experts on climate and risk, who questioned its methods and conclusions.

16. However, Soren Andreasen, a social scientist at Dalberg Global Development Partners who supervised the writing of the report, defended it, saying that it was clear that the numbers were rough estimates. He said the report was aimed at world leaders, who will meet in Copenhagen in December to negotiate a new international climate treaty.

17. In a press release describing the report, Mr. Annan stressed the need for the negotiations to focus on increasing the flow of money from rich to poor regions to help reduce their vulnerability to climate hazards while still curbing the emissions of the heat-trapping gases.

18.

19. In a New York Times article, Sam Boakye---the only black student on his freshman year floor---said that “if you are surrounded by whites, you have something to prove. ”

20. An Indiana University found that interracial roommates were three times as likely as two white roommates to no longer live together by the end of the semester.

21. “One of the great things about freshman housing is that, with some exceptions, the process throws you together randomly, ”said Undergraudate Assembly chairman Alec Webley. “This is the definition of integration ”.

22. Kao said she cautions against forming any generalizations based on any one of the studies, noting that more background characteristics of the students need to be studied and explained.

23. Studies since then suggest that marriage

could add as much as seven years to a man’s life and two to a woman’s. The effect holds for all causes of death, whether illness, accident or self-harm.

24. Linda Waite of the University of Chicago has found that a married older man with heart disease can expect to live nearly four years longer than an unmarried man with a healthy heart. Likewise,/similarly同样地 a married man who smokes more than a pack a day is likely to live as long as a divorced man who doesn ’t smoke. There is a flip side, however, as partners are more likely to become ill or die in a couple of years following their spouse’s death and caring for a spouse with mental disorder can leave you with some of the same severe problems.

25. Even so, the odds favour marriage. In a 30-year study of more than 10,000 people, Nocholas Christakis of Harvard Medical School describes how all kinds of social networks have similar effects.

26. A life partner, children and good friends are all recommended if you aim to live to 100. The ultimate social network is still being mapped out, but Christakis says: “people are interconnected,

interconnected. ”

27. It is pretty much a one-way street. While it may be common for university to try their luck in the commercial world, there is little traffic in the opposite direction.

28. Her main reason for returning to academia mid-career was to take advantage of the greater freedom to choose research questions.

29. He took a 30% salary cut but felt it worthwhile for the greater intellectual opportunities.

30. Industrial scientists tend to receive training that academics do not, such as how to build a multidisciplinary team, manage budgets and negotiate contracts. They are also well placed to bring something extra to the teaching side of an academic role that will help students get so their health is

a job when they graduate.

31. What ’s the point 有什么意义 有什么意思

32. Be most likely to do sth

33. More than

34. Argue with 和 争吵

35. Because of 由于

36. Split up 分开

37. Tend to 倾向于intend to 打算

38. A big deal 一件很重要的事情

39. What ’s going on 发生什么事情

40. Such as ---比如(词)like

41. Far from –一点也不

42. Conform to –遵从

43. Get involved in ---牵涉

44. Rather than /instead of 而不是

45. Go against 反对

46. Focus on : 集中 concentrate on

47. Fail to do sth 不能

48. Tailor to 制定 以适合

49. Appeal to 吸引

50. Be compelled to do sth 被强迫做某事

51. Distinguish from 区别

52. Result from 因为

53. Aim at 目标为

54. Be assigned to 被分配

55. Lead to 导致

56. Engage in 从事

57. Interact with 与 互动

58. Apply for 申请

59. With some exceptions 有一些例外

60. Throw together 随意地放在一起

61. Break down 破裂 出故障

62. Caution against 警惕地反对

63. Base on 基于

64. Be stacked against 被堆在一起

65. Marriage can more than compensate 婚姻不仅仅能补偿。

66. Be expected to 期望

67. A flip side 对立面 唱片的反面

68. In the couple of years 两年

69. Care for 关心 照顾

70. The odds favor marriage 形势对婚姻有利

71. Map out 详细制定 筹划

72. Try one’s luck 实施运气

73. In the opposite direction 相反地方向

74. Take advantage of 利用

75. A wealth of experience 很多经验

76. Be well placed to 处于良好地位

77. Be supposed to 应该

78. Their moods turned significantly darker 他们的心情变差了很多

79. Not only…but also 不仅 而且

80. In contrast 相反

Unit 13

New peaks of popularity 流行的顶峰

Carry the title 有着这样的头衔

But is plain tap water that bad? 但是白味的自来水有那么糟糕吗?

In terms of 在 方面

Similarly, /likewise同样地

View as 将 看作

Thirst for 渴求

Salivate over 垂涎

As diners thirst for leading brands, bottlers and restaurateurs salivate over the profits. Mark-up 涨价,加价

A restaurant’s typical mark-up on wine is 100 to 150 percent, whereas on bottled water it ’s often 300 to 500 percent. But since water is much cheaper than wine, and many of the fancier brands aren’t available in stores, most diners don’t notice or care.

As a result, some restaurants are turning up the pressure to sell bottled water.

Turn up the pressure 加大力度

Regardless of 不管

Tap into 深入了解

Desire for 渴望

Long for 渴望

Regardless of how it’s sold, the popularity of bottled water taps into our desire for better health, our wishes to appear cultivated, and even a longing for lost purity.

2

As we have seen, the focus of medical care in our society has been shifting from curing disease to preventing disease---especially in terms of

changing our many unhealthy behaviors, such as poor eating habits, smoking and failure to exercise. The line of thought involved in this shift can be pursued further. Imagine a person who is about the right weight, but does not eat very nutritious foods, who feels ok but exercises only occasionally, who goes to work every day, but is not an outstanding worker, who drinks a few beers at home most nights but does not drive while drunk, and who has no chest pains or abnormal blood counts, but sleeps a lot and often feels tired. This person is not ill. He may even be at risk for any particular disease. But we can imagine that this person could be a lot healthier.

The field of medicine has not traditionally distinguished between someone who is merely “not ill ”and someone who is in excellent health and pays attention to the body’s special needs. Both types have simply been called “well ”. In recent years, however, some health

specialists have begun to apply the terms “well ” and “wellness ” only to those who are actively striving to maintain and improve their health.

In excellent health 良好的身体状况

Pay attention to 关注

Apply to 将 应用于

Strive to 努力去

Be concerned about 关心

Make a point of 特别注意 重视

Be related to 与 相关

In this sense 从这个意义上讲

Make an effort to do sth 努力做某事 In the face of 面对 尽管

Have a beneficial impact on 对 有有益的影响 Unit 14

In parallel 并列的 平行的

While you need to employ both to get to a finished result, they cannot work in parallel no matter how much we might like to think so. On the fly 运行中 忙碌中

比较级---最高级高频考点

Trying to criticize writing on the fly is possibly the single greatest barrier to writing that most of us encounter.

Be barrier to 对 障碍

In the free writing, the objective is to get words down on paper non-stop, usually for 15-20 minutes.

Most likely, you will believe that this will take more time than you actually have and you will end up staring blankly at the pages as the deadline draws near.

Move back and forth until you run out of time and the final result will most likely be far better than your current practices.

But the more dramatic and meaningful these commitments seem, the less likely they are to be observed. (遵守)

Come up with 提出

End up 结束 告终

Draw near 临近 靠近

Back and forth 来回

Run out of 用完 耗尽

原因

There was a time in my life when people asked constantly for stories about what it ’s like to work in a field dominated by men. I was never very good at telling those stories because truthfully I never found them interesting.

Be fed up with 对 厌烦

in the least 一点儿也不

attribute to 归因于

my every achievement----jobs, research papers, awards---was viewed through the lens of gender politics. So were my failures.

On my behalf 以我的名义

On behalf of 代表

Sometimes, when I was pushed into an argument on left brain versus right brain, or nature versus nurture, I would instantly fight fiercely on my behalf and all womankind.

Recently, someone asked me how many of the 45 students in my class were women. You cannot imagine my satisfaction at being able to answer, 45.

Instead, I have given them this: the visual of their physics professor heavily pregnant doing physics experiments. And in turn they have given me the image of 45 women driven by a love of science. And that’s a sight worth talking about.

In turn 反过来 反之

Unit 15

If you doubt the popularity of the trend, you probably haven ’t heard of the Univeristy of Phoenix. It grants degrees entirely on the basis of online instruction.

Hear of

On the basis of

Generally speaking, face-to-face communication with an instructor is minimized or eliminated altogether.

Primarily, there’s the convenience promised by courses on the Net: you can do the work as they say, in your pajamas.

Account for

Drop out

While drop-out rates for all freshmen at American universities is around 20%, the rate for online students is 35 percent.

Students themselves seem to understand the weaknesses inherent in the setup.

The more students who enroll in a course but don ’t come to campus, the more the school saves on keeping the lights on in the classrooms,

paying doorkeepers, and maintaining parking lots.

Enroll in

2

Shortage of

Keep sb occupied

Yet, despite the competition, my 8-year-old daughter Rebecca wants to spend her leisure time writing short stories.

As a writer I know about winning contests, and about losing them. I know what it is like to work hard on a story only to receive a rejection slip from the publisher. I also know the pressures of trying to live up to a reputation created by previous victories. So many of our own past scars and dashed hopes can surface.

Live up to 达到预期目的

Rejection slip 退稿附条

Far away 远离

Keep an eye on 留意

Engage in 从事

Take pains 尽力 煞费苦心

Unit 16

But the more dramatic and meaningful these commitments seem, the less likely they are to be observed.

Al Gore calls global warming an “inconvenient truth ”, as if merely recognizing it could put us on a path to a solution.

We need economic growth unless we condemn the world’s poor to their present poverty and freeze everyone else ’s living standards. With modest growth, energy use and greenhouse emissions more than double by 2050.

Consider the Kyoto Protocol. It allowed countries that joined to punish those that didn ’t. But it hasn ’t reduced CO2 emissions and many signatories didn ’t adopt tough enough policies to hit their 2008-2012 targets.

The practical conclusion is that if global warming is a potential disaster, the only solution is new technology.

Make commitments to

Be less likely to

Be projected to

Condemn

Modest growth

More than double

Adopt rigid restrictions on

Cut back

Punish

Reduce

Hit target

Dependence on

Deal with

2

Glance through

Find out

Intend to

Equivalent of

Reveal

Boundary

In some cases

Keep a secret

Does that matter

Be concerned about

Slip away

A tiny fraction of

In an effort to

Turn down

Track ---追踪

Surrender to 屈服

Get one’s hands on

At least

Whoever it is, they will see you in a way you never intended to be seen —the 21st century equivalent of being caught naked.

Without one’s knowledge

Be easily accessed to

Try every means

Look into

Be caught on the spot

Open one’s heart to

Be faithful to

Psychologists tell us boundaries are healthy, that it ’s important to reveal yourself to friends, family and lovers in stages, at appropriate times.

The digital bread crumbs you leave everywhere make it easy for strangers to reconstruct who you are, where you are and what you like. In some cases, a simple google search can reveal what you think. Like it or not, increasingly we live in a world where you simply cannot keep a secret.

But people say one thing and do another. Only a tiny fraction of Americans change any behaviors in an effort to preserve their privacy.

But privacy does matter —at least sometimes. It’s like health: when you have it, you don ’t notice it. Only when it is gone do you wish

you’d done more to protect it.

Unit 17

If you are a male and you are reading this, congratulations: you’re a survivor.

There are many reasons for this---typically, men take more risks than women and are more likely to drink and smoke---but perhaps more importantly, men don’t go to the doctor.

They only come in when a friend drop dead on the golf course and they think,’Gee, if it could happen to him, …”

Then there is the ostrich approach.” Some men are scared of what might be there and would rather not know,” says Dr. Ross Cartmill.

Regular check-ups for men would inevitably place strain on the public purse, Cartmill says.” But prevention is cheaper in the long run than

having to treat the diseases.”

Shoppers seldom complain to the manager or owner of a retail store, but instead will alert their friends, relatives, coworkers, strangers---and anyone who will listen.

During peak shopping hours, some retailers solved the parking problems by getting moonlighting local police to work as parking attendants.

Most importantly, salespeople should be diplomatic and polite with angry customers.

Customers can also improve future shopping experiences by filing complaints to the retailer, instead of complaining to the rest of the world.

According to

Die of

On average

Take risks

At least

Compared to

On the golf course

Be scared of

Would rather

Regular check-up

In the long run

Place strain on

Public purse

Average life span

Suffer from

For fear of

Up to

Be disastrous to

Out-of-stock

Most importantly

Parking lot

The rest of

Unit 18

Make the switch

Participate for

Attend to

Be about to

Be aware of

Hunt for

Be on one’s mind

Thanks to

Combined efforts

Lead to

Go far

The January fashion show called FutureFashion, exemplified how far green design has come.

The designers who undertake green fashion still face many challenges. Scott Hahn, cofounder with Gregory of Rogan and loomstate, which uses all-organic cotton, says high-quality sustainable materials can still be tough to find.

Those who do make the switch are finding they have more support. Last year the influential trade show ….it now counts more than ….this week Wal-Mart ….says Hahn. (p131 first para)

Natalie Hormilla, a fashion writer, is an example of the unconverted consumer. When asked if she owned any sustainable clothes, she replied,:”not that I am aware of.”

But thanks to the combined efforts of designers, retailers and suppliers—one day it will be.

Be made of

The public

A big challenge to

Be readily recognized

At favorable prices

Care about

Be opposed to

Go mainstream

A promising future

Have the final say

Appeal to

2

A strand of

Rely on

Result from

Correspond to

Narrow down

Scientists have devised a way to determine roughly where a person has lived using a strand of hair, a teachnique that could help track the movements of criminal suspects or unidentified murder victims.

You are what you eat and drink, and that ’s recorded in your hair.

The heaviest rain falls first. As a result, storms that form over the Pacific deliver heavier water to California than to Utah. (美国西部,美国第45个州) 和夏威夷立法反对各种形式的赌博 salt lake city beehive state 蜜蜂窝的州 外形像个蜜蜂窝

加州: 经济最发展,人口最多 美国西部 黄金州

Cerling ’s team collected tap water samples

from 600 cities and constructed a map of the regional differences.

It ’s not good for pinpointing, Cerling said, “it ’s good for eliminating many possibilities.”

Commit crime

Narrow down the possibilities

Under investigation

Have to do with

Vary from

Be indispensable to

A collection of

Unit 19

Focus on

Be fascinated by

I am more fascinated by Michelle Obama and what she might be able to do, not just for this country, but for me as African-American woman. As the potential First Lady, she would have the world ’s attention. And that means for the first time people will have a chance to get up close

and perusal with the type of African-American woman they so rarely see.

Even in the world of make-believe, black women still can ’t escape the stereotype of being eye-rolling, oversexed females raised by never-married, alcoholic mothers.

Many African-American blogs have written about they’d like to see Michelle bring to the White house ---mainly showing the world that a black woman can support her man and raise a strong black family.

Michelle

But for many African-American women like me, just a little of her poise, confidence and intelligence will go a long way in changing an image that’s been around for far too long. will have to work to please everyone---an impossible task.

Serve as a role model

Present to the world a new image of

Pay attention to the interests of

Be inferior to

Live on

Live up to the high expectations

Behave as

Public figures

Give priority to

The prevailing view

2

Higher education has become a big and competitive business nowadays, and like so many businesses, it ’s gone global. Yet the talent flow isn’t universal. High-level personnel tend to head in only one direction: outward from America.

We did not do any global consideration, says Patricia Hayes, the board ’s chair. The board ultimately picked Bruce Benson, a 69-year-old

Colorado businessman and political activist who is likely to do well in the main task of modern university presidents: fund-raising.

Many European universities, meanwhile, are still mostly dependent on government funding.

In 2003, when Cambridge University appointed Alison Richard, another former Yale provost, as its vice-chancellor, the university publicly stressed that in her previous job she had overseen “a major strengthening of Yale ’s financial position”

The globalization of education means more universities will be seeking heads with international experience of some kind to promote international programs and attract a global student body. Foreigners can offer a fresh perspective on established practices.

.

Search for 寻找

Be familiar with 对 熟悉

Raise fund 筹集资金

Rely on 依赖

Be dependent on 依赖 依靠

Fail to 未能

Keep pace with 与 保持一致

Be hungry for 渴求

Join the trend 加入这种趋势

Established practices 习以为常的做法

Be recruited as 被招收为

Under supervision 在 管理之下

Strengthen their position 加强地位

Strengthen their ties 加强关系

Set up 建立

New disciplines 新学科

Unit 20

You never see them, but they are with you every time you fly. They record where you are going, how fast you are travelling and whether

everything on your airplane is functioning normally. Their ability to withstand almost any disaster makes them seem like something out of a comic book. They are known as black box.

The black box is the best bet for identifying what went wrong. (最高级)

Early models often failed to withstand crashes, however, so in 1965 the device was completely redesigned and moved to the rear of the plane---the area least subject to impact---from its original position in the landing wells. (转折+因果)

That same year, the Federal Aviation Authority required that the boxes, which were never actually black, be painted orange or yellow to aid visibility.

Experts believe the boxes from the Air France Flight 447, which crashed near Brazil on June 1,

2009, are in water nearly that deep, but statistics say they’re still likely to turn up.

Subject to

Turn up

Ensure the normal functioning of

Ward off

On board

Distinguish from

Hand sb with care

Conform to

2

Be built on the idea

turn into

Researchers in Canada jut published a study in the journal Psychological Science that says trying to get people to think more positively can actually have the opposite effect: it can simply highlight how unhappy they are.

When people get feedback which they believe is overly positive, they actually feel worse, not

better. If you tell your dim friend that he has the potential of an Einstein, you’re underlining his faults.

Those with low self-esteem didn ’t feel better after the forced self-affirmation. In fact, their moods turned significantly darker than those of members of the control group, who weren ’t urged to think positive thoughts.

The paper provides support for newer forms of psychotherapy that urge people to accept their negative thoughts and feelings rather than fight them. In the fighting, we not only often fail but can make things worse. Meditation techniques, in contrast, can teach people to put their shortcomings into a larger, more realistic perspective. Call it the power of negative thinking.

Be praised for

In contrast

Be urged to

Yield

Be based on

Do more harm than good Take sth seriously

Point out

Unit 21

Be willing to

Keep from

Attract one’s attention

A financial burden

Preference for

Academic accomplishments Gear toward

Make up for

Arise from

Take care of

In need

Relieve of

Infer from

Share with

Reduced life span

Be prejudiced against Look down upon

Compete with

Fall out

Get along

Be required to

Without exception

Without regard to

Have to do with

Arouse interest

Deserve one’s attention Be vulnerable to

Give rise to

Draw the attention of Grow up

Place more pressures on Be interested in

In charge

All the more

Resist the temptation of Sacrifice one’s dignity for Put together

Reach agreement on

Maintain a healthy relationship Mean a great deal to Split up

Before unit 13

Be composed of

Be founded on

Take advantage of

Turn a blind eye to

Be allowed to

In the wake of

To a certain extent

Be justified to

Under the threat of

In different ways

Be far from

When it comes to …

A range of

Tell lies

Work out

Make up

Fast reading

Stick to

Facilitate communication

Mutual trust

Break rules

Run into trouble

Make excuses

Watch over one’s shoulder

Be cautious about

In the end

Get caught right away

Pay more dearly

Feel somewhat lucky

In that

Rely on

Lose faith in

As a result of

Live up to the standard

Each and every day

Make choices

Be responsible for

Manage to

Fool into

Watch out for

As well as

Go wrong

Dismiss from

Lose control over

Go wrong

Dismiss from

Lose control over

Impose on

Matters of life and death

Fall in this category

Get away with

Deprive of

As if

Regardless of

Attack on

Work hard for

As a whole

Take a tremendous toll on

Be available to

Pay for

Stake in

Be short of

Appeal to

Come of age

Have a reputation for

Be familiar with

No longer

Room for improvement

Be traced back to 追溯到

Come to an end 结束

Pick up 捡起,获得,拾得

A decent quantity of

Look for 寻找

Get one’s hands on 得到,占有,找到

Prevail for

Prioritization of A over B A 优先于B 的偏好 Be brought up 被抚养

To the point that 到... 程度

Please the tastes of

Make one’s way to 转向,想方设法进入 Keep up 保持,继续

Be responsive to 对。。。敏感

Breathe new life into 给予活力

Remain true to 忠于

In the second camp阵营

Be proud of 自豪,高兴

Depend on ---rely on—be dependent on ---be reliant on 依靠

Be associated with --- 和什么联系在一起

Adapt to 使适应于

Carve up 瓜分,划分

Provide for 提供,供给

Be complementary to 有互补性

Take time 从容应对

细节题---长句难分析: 定位词、考点

推理题---what does the author mean/what can be inferred from the first paragraph/the last paragraph.---最后一句提示你的答案 词汇题—— deterrent ; one-way street; ostrich approach …. 短句出现这些单词 ---短句之后的句子 主旨题---the general idea of the passage

What is the passage mainly about (最具概括性才是答案)

态度题-what ’s the author ’s attitude

toward …positive negative optimistic pessimistic sarcastic neutral

选词填空 (15---10)

语法 词性

动词 名词 形容词 副词

n ns

v ves ved ving

adv

adj

adj

ns

adj

n

n

adj

ved

n

adv

v

v

ns

ved

ns

adv

介词

近义词辨析 Show Suggest Reveal Found 完型填空 词组

近义词辨析

通篇---逻辑关系


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