20**年职称英语考试教材_理工类新增文章

2016年职称英语考试教材_理工类新增文章

2016年职称英语等级考试教材_理工类新增文章 (1)

Common Questions about Dreams

Does everyone dream?

Yes. Research shows that we all dream. We have our most vivid dreams during a type of sleep called Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. During REM sleep, the brain is very active. The eyes move quickly back and forth under the lids, and the large muscles of the body are relaxed. REM sleep occurs every 90-100 minutes, three to four times a night, and it lasts longer as the night goes on. ___1___ We dream at other times during the night, too, but those dreams are less vivid.

Do people remember their dreams?

A few people remember their dreams. However, most people forget nearly everything that happened during the night — dreams, thoughts, and the short periods of time when they were awake. ___2___ It seems that the memory of the dream is not totally lost, but for some reason it is very hard to bring it back. If you want to remember your dream,the best thing to do is to write it down as soon as you wake up.

Are dreams in color?

Most dreams are in color. However, people may not be aware of it for two reasons : They don’t usually remember the details of their dreams, or they don’t notice the color because it is such a natural part of our lives. ___3___

Do dreams have meaning?

Scientists continue to debate this issue. ___4___ Some people use dreams to help them learn more about their feelings, thoughts, behavior, motives, and values. Others find that dreams can help them solve problems. It’s also true that artists, writers, and scientists often get creative ideas from dreams.

How can I learn to understand my dreams?

The most important thing to remember is that your dreams are personal. The people, actions, and situations in your dreams reflect your experience, your thoughts, and your feelings. Some dream experts believe that there are certain types of dreams that many people have,even if they come from different cultures or time periods. Usually, however, the same dream will have different meanings for different people. For example, an elephant in a dream may mean one thing to a zookeeper and something very different to a child whose favorite toy is a stuffed elephant. ___5___ Then look for links between your dreams and what is happening in your daily life. If you think hard and you are patient, perhaps the meaning of your dreams will become clearer to you.

词汇:

vivid /'vivid/ adj. 清晰的,生动的,逼真的

lid /lid/ n. 眼睑(=eyelid)

motive /məutiv/ n. 动机

stuffed /stʌft/ adj. 填充的,塞满了的

注释:

1. back and forth:来回地,反复地。

2. bring it back:回忆起它来。bring back:使回忆起来,带回来、拿回来,使恢复。

3. Scientists continue to debate this issue. 科学家们不断地讨论这个问题。“debate”作动词“争论,辩论,讨论”讲,既可以是不及物动词也可以是及物动词,作不及物动词时常与 “about/ on/upon” 搭配。

练习:

A However, people who spend time thinking about their dreams believe that they are meaningful and useful.

B The final REM period may last as long as 45 minutes.

C People who are very aware of color when they are awake probably notice color more often in their dreams.

D Our most powerful dreams don’t happen during deep sleep.

E To learn to understand your dreams, think about what each part of the dream means to you or reminds you of.

F Sometimes, though, people suddenly remember a dream later in the day or on another day.

答案与题解:

1. B 文中第一部分主要介绍快速眼动睡眠期,而且前一句正好提到每晚快速眼动睡眠期的间隔时间、出现频率及其持续时间的情况。

2. F 题目所在的前一句提到大多数人会忘记晚上所发生的几乎所有事情,而后一句中又提到人们对梦的记忆好像没有完全丢失,由此可以推断出中间这一句应该说的是人有时会记起自己的梦。

3. C 文中第三部分提到梦是彩色的,前面主要讲的是人们可能意识不到这个问题以及意识不到的原因,由此可以推断后面应该会提到那些可以意识到这个问题的人。因此,答案为C。

4. A 文中第四部分讲的是梦的意义,纵观六个选项与部分主题相关的只有选项A,而且后面主要提到人们会利用梦做些什么,这也就意味着人们会思考他们的梦而且相信梦是有意义的。

5. E 由第五部分的标题就可以锁定选项E,而且后一句讲的是要寻找梦与现实的联系,正好与选项E的意思相吻合。

参考译文:

关于梦的常见问题

每个人都会做梦吗?

是的。研究表明我们都会做梦。在一种叫作快速眼动(REM)的睡眠期里,我们会有最清晰生动的梦。在这种睡眠期里,大脑非常活跃,眼睛在眼睑下面来来回回地快速移动,而且身体的大肌肉会得到放松。快速眼动睡眠期每隔90~100分钟会出现一次,一晚会出现3~4次,而且随着入夜渐深,每次持续的时间也会变长。最后一次快速眼动睡眠期可能会持续长达45分钟。我们在夜晚的其他时间段也会做梦,但是那些梦没有快速眼动睡眠期里的梦清晰生动。

人们会记得他们的梦吗?

一些人会记得他们的梦。然而,大多数人会忘记晚上所发生的几乎所有的事——梦、思想以及他们醒着时的短暂时光。但是,有时人们会在当天晚些时候或改天突然想起他们的梦。他们对梦的记忆好像并没有完全消失,但出于某种原因却很难回忆起来。如果你想记住自己的梦,最好的办法是一醒来就把它写下来。

梦是彩色的吗?

大多数梦是彩色的。然而,人们可能不会意识到这一点。这是基于两方面的原因:人们通常不会记住梦的细节,或者因为颜色是我们生活中的自然组成部分,所以不会注意到。那些在醒着的时候意识到颜色的人可能会更经常注意到梦的颜色。

梦有意义吗?

科学家们不停地讨论这个问题。然而,那些花时间思考他们梦的人相信梦是有意义的、有用的。有些人借助梦更多地了解自己的情感、思想、行为、动机和价值观。其他人发现梦可以帮助自己解决问题。艺术家、作家和科学家也确实经常从梦中获得创作的灵感。 我如何学会理解自己的梦?

要记得最重要的一点就是梦是个人的。梦里的人、行为以及情景都能反映你的经历、思想以及情感。有些梦境专家认为某些类型的梦是很多人都有的,即使他们来自不同的文化或时期。然而,通常对于不同的人,同一个梦会有不同的意义。比如,做梦梦到大象对于一个动物园管理员来说意味着一回事,而对于一个最喜欢大象毛绒玩具的小孩来说就意味着截然不同的事。为了学会理解自己的梦,首先要思考一下梦的每一部分对你意味着什么或者让你想起了什么。然后寻找梦与日常生活中所发生事情的联系。如果你认真思考而且有耐心,或许你会更清晰地理解梦的意义。

2016年职称英语等级考试教材_理工类新增文章 (2)

Baby Talk

Babies normally start to talk when they are 13 to 15 months old. Ryan Jones is only eight months old, but he is already “talking” with his parents. When lie is hungry, he opens and closes his hand. This means milk. He also knows the signs for his favorite toy and the word more.

Ryan is not deaf, and his parents are not deaf, but his mother and father are teaching him to sign. They say a word and make a sign at the same time. They repeat this again and again. When ___1___ Ryan’s parents think that he will be a happier baby because he can communicate with them.

Ryan s parents are teaching Ryan to sign because of a man named Joseph Garcia.

Although Garcia was not from a deaf family, he decided to learn American Sign Language (ASL). First, he took courses in ASL. Then he got a job helping deaf people communicate with hearing people. In his work, he saw many deaf parents sign to their infants. He noticed that these babies were able to communicate much earlier than hearing children. ___2___ When they were one year old, they could use as many as 50 signs.

Garcia decided to try something new. He taught ASL to parents who were not deaf. The families started to teach signs to their infants when they were six or seven months old. ___3___ More and more parents took Garcia’s ASL classes. Like Ryan’s family, they were excited about signing with their babies. They wanted to give their babies a way to communicate before they could use spoken words.

Some people worry about signing to babies. They are afraid that these babies won’t feel a need to talk. Maybe they will develop spoken language later than other babies. ___4___ In fact, one study found just the opposite. Signing babies actually learned to speak earlier than other children. As they grow older, these children are more interested in books. They also score higher on intelligence tests1.

There is still a big question for parents: Which are the best signs to teach their babies? Some parents make their own signs. Other parents want to teach ASL. ___5___ There’s no clear answer, but we do know this: All signing babies and their families are talking quite a lot!

词汇:

normally /'nɔ:m(ə)li/ adv. 正常地;通常地,一般地

infant /'infənt / n. 婴儿;幼儿;未成年人

communicate /kə'mju:nikeit/ 通信;交流;感染

opposite /'ɔpəzit/ adj. 相反的;n. 对立面,反义词

注释:

1. intelligence test:智力测试

练习:

A However, research does not show this.

B All parents want to teach babies to sign.

C Ryan learns a new sign, his family is very excited.

D These babies started using signs about two months later.

E It can be useful because many people understand it.

F They talked with signs by the time they were eight months old.

答案与题解:

1. C 第二段主要是讨论Ryan学习手语的过程,当他学会一种新的手势时,父母非常高兴。

2. F 这一段讲的是婴儿在学习手语过程中的共同规律。题目前一句讲Garcia注意到学习手语的婴儿比普通婴儿更早开始交流,后一句讲婴儿1岁时能使用的手势多达50种,因此,此处应填“这些婴儿从8个月起就开始用手语交流”。

3. D 这一段讲有些家庭在婴儿六七个月的时候开始教他们手语。D选项中的these babies指代这些婴儿,符合题意。

4. A 前文讲有些人担心婴儿学习手语会导致其会话能力发展缓慢,后文讲的是研究表明并不是这样,因此空格处应填表示转折的句子。

5. E E选项是对前文中ASL的解释,ASL是通用手语,因此能被更多的人理解。选项中的it即指代ASL。

参考译文:

婴儿语

婴儿通常在1 ~15个月的时候开始说话。Ryan Jones刚刚8个月,但他已经开始和父母“说话”了。他饿的时候,就会把手一张一合,这个动作表示牛奶。他还懂得表示他最喜欢的玩具以及“更多”这个词。

Ryan不是聋哑人,他的父母也不是,但他们正在教他手语。他们在说话的同时做出相应的手语姿势,并不断重复。当Ryan学会一个新的手势时,家人都非常高兴。Ryan的父母认为,因为能和父母交流,Ryan会成为一个更快乐的婴儿。

Ryan的父母之所以教Ryan手语,是因为一名叫Joseph Garcia的人。Garcia也不是聋哑人,但他决定学习美国手语(ASL)。最开始的时候,他参加了一门相关课程的学习。之后,他得到了一份帮助聋哑人和正常人交流的工作,在工作中,他看到很多聋哑人父母用手语与他们的幼子交流。他注意到,这些孩子能比正常孩子更早地与他人交流。他们8个月大的时候就能通过手语进行交流,而到了1岁的时候,他们能使用多达50种手势。

Garcia决定进行一些新的尝试,他向非聋哑人父母教授美国手语。这些家庭在孩子六七个月的时候就教孩子手语,而孩子们在大约两个月之后就开始使用这些手语了。越来越多的父

母前去参加的美国手语课程。和Ryan的家人一样,他们对于能和孩子通过手语交流感到非常兴奋。他们想让孩子在会说话之前学会一种交流的方式。

有些人对此很担忧,他们担心这些小孩会觉得开口说话没有必要,这样他们的语言能力发展可能比其他孩子慢。然而,研究表明,事实并非如此。实际上,有一项研究发现,事实正好相反,掌握手语的孩子实际上比其他孩子更早开口说话。随着年龄的增长,他们对阅读的兴趣更强,在智力测试中获得的分数更高。

对于父母来说,还有一个大问题:哪种手语对孩子来说是最好的?有的父母使用自己创造的手势,还有些父母使用美国手语,这种手语懂的人多,因此更有用。目前对于这个问题还没有明确的答案,但是我们确切地知道:会用手语的婴儿和他们的家人会“说”很多话!

2016年职称英语等级考试教材_理工类新增文章 (3)

The Apgar Test

The baby was born at 3:36 p. m. At 3:37, she scored 4 out of 10 on her first test. At 3:41, she scored 8 out of 10. The doctor was glad.

Another baby, born at 8:24 p. m., scored 3 out of 10 on his first test. He scored 4 out of 10 on his second test. He took another test at 8:34 and scored 5. ___1___ He called for help1.

These newborn babies took a test called the Apgar test. This test helps doctors diagnose problems. ___2___ Most babies take two tests. The first is at 1 minute after birth, and the second is at 5 minutes after birth. If a baby’s score at 5 minutes is less than 6, the baby takes another test at 10 minutes after birth.

The Apgar test is not an intelligence test. It’s a test that shows a baby’s health right after it is born. The Apgar test measures things such as a baby’s color, heart rate, and breathing. The test has five parts, and the score for each part can be 0, 1, or 2. ___3___

A doctor named Virginia Apgar developed the test. Apgar went to medical school at Columbia University in New York City in 1929. She faced many challenges because she was the first woman in the program. However, she was one of the best students in her class. After medical school, she started treating patients2.

Apgar also became a researcher in anesthesiology, a new topic in medicine at the time3. During her studies, she learned how to give patients anesthesia. ___4___

In the 1940s, many women started to have anesthesia when they gave birth. Apgar had a question: How does anesthesia affect newborn babies? In 1949, when Apgar was a professor at Columbia’s medical school, she created her simple test. She wrote a paper about her methods in 1953. Soon after, people started using the Apgar test around the world.

In her work, Apgar saw that many newborns had problems. She wanted to help these babies survive. She stopped practicing medicine in 1959, and she went back to school to get a master’s degree in public health. ___5___

Today, the Apgar test is still used all over the world. Newborn babies don’t know it, but Virginia Apgar is a very important person in the first few minutes of their lives.

词汇:

diagnose /'daiəgnəuz/ vt. & vi. 诊断(疾病)

anesthesiology /,ænis,θizi’ɔlədʒi/ n. 麻醉学

anesthesia /,ænis'θiziə/ n. 麻醉

注释:

1. called for help:需要帮助,求救。call for:需要,要求,提倡;来找(某人),来取

(某物)。

2. she started treating patients:她开始治疗病人。treat sb.有三种意思,分别是“对待某人”“治疗某人”和“款待某人”。treat作“治疗”讲,是普通用语的治疗,意义广泛,cure多用于疾病方面,heal多用于创伤或外伤方面。

3. at the time:当时,在那时。同义短语有at that point, at that time, on the occasion。

练习:

A Doctors add the scores together for the total Apgar score.

B She spent the rest of her life doing research and raising money to help newborn babies.

C A score of 10 is uncommon.

D The doctor was worried.

E They decide if a baby is normal or needs special care.

F Anesthesia is a procedure that makes patients lose consciousness, so they do not feel any pain during surgery.

答案与题解:

1. D 由第二段的前半部分可知这个婴儿三次健康测试的分数都不理想,而且最后一句提到他需要救助,说明他的情况不容乐观,所以医生应该担心。因此,答案为D。

2. E 第三段中第二句话提到这项测试帮助医生诊断新生儿的问题,即医生可以根据测试结果判断新生儿的健康状况。因此,答案为E。

3. A 顺承本段倒数第二句的句意可知选项A和选项C都可以,但选项C说10分的成绩不常见,这一点由全文其他地方推断不出来。因此,答案为A。

4. F 本段第二句话最后提到阿普加学习给病人实施麻醉,而选项F讲的是麻醉是什么,正好与本段第二句话句意吻合。因此,答案为F。

5. B 本段主要讲的是阿普加帮助新生儿的愿望以及她为此所做的努力,纵观六个选项符合段意的只有选项B。因此,答案为B。

参考译文:

阿普加测试

下午3:36,一个婴儿出生了。3:37时,她的第一次健康测试成绩是4分(总分10分)。3:41时,她的成绩是8分,医生感到非常高兴。

另一天晚上8:24,另外一个婴儿出生了。他的第一次测试成绩是3分,第二次成绩是4分。8:34时又进行了一次测试,成绩是5分。医生非常担心,这个婴儿需要救助。

这些新生儿进行的是一项叫作阿普加的测试。这项测试帮助医生诊断新生儿的问题,他们根据测试成绩判断新生儿是正常的还是需要特殊护理。大多数的婴儿会接受两次测试。第一次是在出生后1分钟,第二次是在出生后5分钟。如果婴儿在第二次测试中的成绩少于6分,那他们需要在出生10分钟后再进行一次测试。

阿普加测试不是一项智力测试。它是一项在婴儿出生后表明其健康状况的测试。这项测试会测量诸如婴儿的皮肤颜色、心率、呼吸一类的项目,总共包括五部分,每一部分的成绩可以是0分、1分或2分。医生把每一部分的成绩加起来就是这项测试的总分。

一位名叫弗吉尼亚·阿普加的医生设计了这项测试。1929年,阿普加去纽约的哥伦比亚大学医学院就读。由于是这个学科里的第一位女性,使她面临了许多挑战。然而,她却是班上最好的学生之一。完成医学院的学业后,她开始给患者治疗。

阿普加还是麻醉学方面的研究者,当时麻醉学是一项新的医学课题。在求学过程中,她学会了如何给患者实施麻醉。麻醉会使病人失去意识,因而他们在手术过程中不会感到任何疼痛。

20世纪40年代,许多妇女在分娩时开始使用麻醉。但阿普加有个疑问:麻醉是如何影响新生儿的呢?1949年,当阿普加在哥伦比亚医学院担任教授时,她创造了这项简单测试。1953年,她写了一篇关于该测试方法的论文。不久之后,人们开始在世界范围内使用阿普加测试。

在工作中,阿普加发现许多新生儿都有健康问题。她想帮助这些新生儿活下来。1959年,她中止了行医,回到学校攻读公共卫生硕士学位。她把自己的余生都奉献给了医学研究以及筹集资金帮助新生儿。

今天,阿普加测试仍然在全世界范围内被广泛运用。虽然新生儿们并不知道,但弗吉尼亚·阿普加却是他们生命的前几分钟里非常重要的一个人。

2016年职称英语等级考试教材_理工类新增文章 (4)

Ice Cream Taster Has Sweet Job

John Harrison has what must be the most wanted job in the United States. He’s the official taster for Edy’s Grand Ice Cream, one of the nation’s best-selling brands. Harrison’s taste buds are insured for $1 million. ___1___ And when he isn’t doing that, he travels, buying Edy’s in supermarkets all over the country so that he can check for perfect appearance, texture, and flavor.

After I interviewed Harrison, I realized that the life of an ice cream taster isn’t all Cookies ’n Cream — a flavor that* he invented, by the way. No, it’s extremely hard work, which requires discipline and selflessness.

For one thing, he doesn’t swallow on the job. Like a coffee taster, Harrison spits. Using a gold spoon to avoid “off” flavors, he takes a small bite and moves it around in his mouth to introduce it to all 9,000 or so taste buds. ___2___ Then he breathes in gently to bring the aroma up through the back of his nose. Each step helps Harrison evaluate whether the ice cream has a good balance of dairy, sweetness, and added ingredients 一 the three-flavor components of ice cream. Then, even if the ice cream tastes heavenly, he puts it into a trash can. A full stomach makes it, impossible to judge the quality of the flavors.

During the workweek, Harrison told me that he has to make other sacrifices, too: no onions, garlic, or spicy food, and no caffeine. Caffeine will block the taste buds, he says, so his breakfast is a cup of herbal tea. ___3___

Harrison’s family has been in the ice cream business in one way or another1 for four generations, so Harrison has spent his entire life with it2. However, he has never lost his love for its cold, creamy sweetness. ___4___ On these occasions3, he does swallow, and he eats about a quart (0.95 liters) each week. By comparison4, the average person in the United States eats 23.2 quarts (21. 96 liters) of ice cream and other frozen dairy products each year.

Edy’s ice cream is available in dozens of flavors. So what flavor does the best-trained ice-cream taster in the country prefer? Vanilla! In fact, vanilla is the best-selling variety in the United States. ___5___ “It’s a very complex flavor,” Harrison says.

词汇:

taste bud 味蕾

texture /'tekstʃə/a/ n. 质地

aroma /ə'rəumə/ n. 芳香

vanilla /və'mlə/ n. 香草

注释:

1. in one way or another:以某种方式,用这样或那样的方式

2. has spent his entire life with it:为此他已付出一生。spend.…with sth.:花(时间等)在某事上

3. on these occasions:在这种场合下

4. by comparison:相比之下

练习:

A However, you should never call it plain vanilla.

B He even orders ice cream in restaurants for dessert.

C Next he smack-smack-smacks his lips to get some air into the sample.

D This is a small price to pay for what he calls the world’s best job.

E In his younger days, he would help out at the ice cream factory his uncle owned. F He gets to sample 60 ice creams a day at Edy’s headquarters in Oakland, California. 答案与题解:

1. F 文中第一段讲了Harrison的工作情况。后文提到他休假时的情况,所以此处应为对他工作状态的介绍。

2. C 第二段主要介绍了他工作时品尝冰淇淋的过程。前文介绍了刚入口中的情况,此处应该是后续介绍。

3. D 第四段讲了他为此工作做出的牺牲。

4. B 此处前文讲到他仍然爱吃冰淇淋,所以此处B选项最符合原文。

5. A 根据后文讲“香草是一种复杂的口味”可以推断此处应为A选项。

参考译文:

冰淇淋品尝师一一一份甜蜜的职业

约翰·哈瑞森拥有一份可能是美国人最想要的工作。他是一名职业的冰淇淋品尝师,供职于美国最畅销的冰淇淋品牌之一Edy’s Grand Ice Cream。哈瑞森已经给味蕾投保了100万美元。他每天要在位于加州奥克兰的Edy’s总部尝试60种冰淇淋样品。休假时,他会去旅行,并且到全国各地的超市买来Edy’s产品,以便检査外观,质地和口味是否完美。 在采访完哈瑞森之后,我发现一个冰淇淋品尝师的生活并不像他发明的奶油曲奇味雪糕那样甜。这是一个需要克制和无私的艰难工作。

首先,工作时他不能咽下冰淇淋,只能像咖啡品尝师那样吐出。为了避免其他味道的混入,他用金制的汤匙舀取冰淇淋,咬一小口在口中搅动,让大约9 000个味蕾全部都能感觉到味道,然后他不断咂嘴唇好让空气进入口中。接着,他轻轻吸一口气,让冰淇淋的芳香窜入鼻中。每一个步骤都有助于哈瑞森判断出这款冰淇淋的牛奶、甜度和添加剂这三种成分是否已达到完美的平衡。即使这个冰淇淋尝起来极其美味,他接下来也会把它扔到垃圾桶里。饱腹感是不可能判断出口味的品质的。

哈瑞森告诉我说,在工作周,他也不得不做出很多牺牲:不能吃洋葱、大蒜或辣的食物以及含咖啡因的食物。因为咖啡因会限制味蕾,所以他早饭时只喝一杯花草茶。这只是他为了自己口中世界上最好的工作所付出的一个小代价。

哈瑞森的家族中已经有四代人以这样或那样的方式在冰淇淋行业工作,所以他已经为此付出了一生。但他并没有失去对这种凉爽油腻的甜品的爱。他甚至会在餐厅中点冰淇淋作为甜品。在这些时候,他会咽下它们,他每周大概会吃掉一夸脱(0.95升)的冰淇淋。而美国普通人平均每年要吃掉23.2夸脱(21. 96升)的冰淇淋和其他冰冻奶制品。

Edy’s的冰淇淋有几十种口味。哪种口味才是这个国家最有经验的冰淇淋品尝师的最爱呢?香草味的!事实上,香草口味是全美最畅销的。但是,你不能称它是纯香草口味。“这是个

很复杂的口味,”哈瑞森说道。

2016年职称英语等级考试教材_理工类新增文章 (5)

Primer on Smell

In addition to bringing out1 the flavor of food, what does the sense of smell do for us? Smell “gives us information about place, about where we are,” says Randall Reed, a Johns Hopkins University professor whose specialty is the sense of smell. ___1___ “Whether we realize it or not, we collect a lot of information about who is around us based on smell,” says Reed.

Even at a distance, odors can warn us of2 trouble — spoiled food, leaking gas, or fire. “It’s a great alert,” offers Donald Leopold, a doctor at Johns Hopkins. For example, if something in the oven is burning, everyone in the house knows it.

With just a simple scent, smell can also evoke very intense emotion. Let’s say, for example, that the smell is purple petunias. ___2___ Now let’s imagine that your mother died when you were three, and she used to have a flower garden. You wouldn’t need to identify the smell or to have conscious memories of your mother or her garden. You would feel sad as soon as you smelled that spicy odor.

Compared with3 animals, how well do people detect smelts?

That depends on what you mean by “how well”. We are low on receptor cells : current estimates say that humans have roughly five million smell-receptor cells, about as many as a mouse. ___3___

Reed says that, across species, there is a relatively good correlation between the number of receptor cells and how strong the sense of smell is. “You can hardly find the olfactory bulb in a human brain —— it’s a pea-sized object. In a mouse, it’s a little bigger. It’s bean-sized in a rat, about the size of your little finger in a rabbit, and the size of your thumb in a bloodhound.”

Does that mean that our sense of smell is not very acute?

Not exactly. While we may not have the olfactory range of other creatures, the receptors we do have are as sensitive as those of any animal. ___4___ A trained “nose”, such as that of a professional in the perfume business, can name and distinguish about 10,000 odors. Reed says that a perfume expert can sniff a modem scent that has a hundred different odorants in it, go into the lab, and list the ingredients. “In a modest amount of time, he comes back with what to you or me would smell like a perfect imitation of that perfume. It’s amazing.”

What happens to4 our sense of smell as we age?

Many people continue to have good olfactory function as they get older. ___5___ Leopold says that smell is generally highest in childhood, stays the same from the teens through the 50s, and drops starting at about 60 for women and 65 for men. “The average 80-year-old is only able to smell things half as well as the average 20-year-old,” says Leopold.

词汇:

scent /sent/ n. 气味,香味

petunia /pə'tju:niə/ n. 喇叭花

olfactory /ɔl'fækt(ə)ri/ adj. 嗔觉的,味道的

sniff /snif/ v. 嗅,闻,用力吸

注释:

1. bring out:使……显出,使……变得明显

2. warn of:发出关于……的警告。warn sb. of sth.:警告某人某事

3. compare with:与……相比

4. happen to:发生于,发生在

练习:

A These flowers have a rich spiciness that no other petunia has.

B Odors, or smells, can warn us about trouble.

C That’s not the rule, however.

D And smell tells us about people.

E We can also think, and we make conscious (and successful) efforts to tell the difference between one smell and another.

F A rat has some 10 million, a rabbit 20 million, and a bloodhound 100 million. 答案与题解:

1. D 根据后文提到的“我们能够根据气味收集到有关人的很多信息”可以推断此处答案是D选项。

2. A 前文提到以紫喇叭花的香味举例,选项中只有A选项提到了喇叭花。

3. F 前文提到人类和小鼠的嗅觉受体细胞数量,可以推断此处应介绍其他物种的嗅觉受体细胞数量。

4. E 后文都在介绍人类可以区分味道的不同,所以此处E选项最符合原文意思。

5. C 后文介绍了不是每个人都随着年龄的增长嗅觉能力不发生变化,所以此处C选项最符合原文。

参考译文:

嗅觉入门

嗅觉除了能让我们感受到食物的气味外,还能做什么?

美国约翰霍普金斯大学研究嗅觉的专家Randall Reed教授指出,气味能提供给我们关于位置,关于我们在哪儿,以及有关人的信息。“无论我们是否意识到,我们能根据气味收集到许多关于谁在我们身边的信息,”Reed讲道。

即使还隔着一段距离,气味就能提醒我们注意很多麻烦:变质的食物,煤气泄漏,或是火灾。“它是一个很好的警告,”约翰霍普金斯大学的医生Donald Leopold说道。比方说,烤箱中有东西烧焦了,屋内的每个人都会知道。

仅仅是简单的气味,嗅觉就会引起强烈的情感。比如说那种气味就是紫喇叭花。它的气味中有一种其他喇叭花没有的香味。现在我们想象一下,你的母亲在你3岁时就去世了,她曾经拥有一座花园。你不必去辨认那种气味或者有意识地回忆起你的母亲或者她的花园,只要是你闻到那种紫喇叭花的香味,你就会感到伤感。

与动物相比,人类感知气味的能力有多强?

那要取决于你所谓的“多强”是什么意思。我们人类的受体细胞很少:目前估计人类有大概500万个嗅觉受体细胞,差不多和一只小鼠的一样多。一只大鼠大约有1 000万个,一只兔子有2 000万个,一只寻血犬有1亿个。

Reed谈到,在不同的物种中,受体细胞的数量和嗅觉的强弱大体是正相关的。“人的大脑中是几乎找不到嗅球的,它像豌豆般大小。小鼠的脑中,嗅球大一点。大鼠的脑中,嗅球有蚕豆那么大,兔子脑中的有你的小手指那么大,而寻血犬脑中的有拇指那么大。” 这是不是就意味着我们的嗅觉不够敏锐呢?

不完全是。尽管我们的嗅觉范围可能没有其他生物的那么广,但是我们已有的受体细胞和其他动物的一样敏感。我们也可以认为,我们在有意(并且成功地〕努力区别不同的气味。受

过培训的鼻子,比如研究香水的专家的鼻子就能够区分1万种气味并说出其名字。Reed说,一个香水专家可以在闻完一种含有100种不同香料的现代香水后,走进实验室,列出这些成分。“一段时间过后,他调制出来的气味对于你我来说都是那种香水气味的完美复制,太不可思议了。”

随着年龄的增长,我们的嗅觉会发生什么变化?

许多人年龄增大时还会有很好的嗅觉能力。但并不都是这样。指出,一个人的嗅觉在儿童时最强,在青少年时期一直到50多岁都保持不变,女人通常从60岁、男人从65岁开始下降。“通常来说,80岁的人能闻到的东西是20岁的人能闻到的一半,”Leopold说道。

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