C6--战略管理--职能层战略

高度决定视野

视野决定战略

战略管理

St t i M Strategic Managementt

Developed by Sun Renjin

School of Business Administration, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, BeijingEmail: 86977012中国石油大学(北京)工商管理学院

孙仁金博士副教授

第6章运用职能层战略建立竞争优势

职能层战略

职能层战略的目标是提高企业运营的效率。

职能层战略旨在提高企业获得卓越效率、品质创新的顾客反就的能力品质、创新的顾客反就的能力。

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

竞争优势的源泉

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的效率

规模经济

{大规模产出时单位成本降低

将固定成本分摊到巨大的产量中通大规模制造实现劳动分工和专业化 规模不经济

{在规模产出时单位成本上升

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

规模经济与规模不经济

实现卓越的绩效(续) 学习效应

{通过“干中学”所实现的成本节省 劳动生产率

管理效率

企业制造系统改变后,学习过程需要重新开始

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

学习效应和规模经济对单位成本的影响

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的效率(续) 经验曲线

{在产品的生命周期中系统性地降低成本结构和由此导致的单位成本降低 规模经济和学习效应是经验曲线的主导因素

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

经验曲线

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的效率(续) 满足于经验曲线的危险{经验曲线会走到尽头

{新技术的出现令经验效应过时{某些技术在高产出时可能不会导致低成本{柔性制造技术令小型制造企业获得降低单性制造技术令型制造企业获降低单位制造成本的方法

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

集成式炼钢厂和小型炼钢厂的集成炼炼单位生产成本

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的效率(续) 柔性制造(精益)

{

{

{缩短复杂设备安装时间、更紧凑的工期安排提高每台机器的使用和改善品质控制提高效率和降低单位成本大规模定制同时实现两个目标:低成本和通过产品定制实现差异化

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

产品多样性和控制成本的权衡

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的效率(续) 营销

{营销战略:定价,促销,广告,产品设计,营销战略:定价促销广告产品设计分销。

减少顾客流失和建立顾客忠诚。{

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

顾客忠诚和单位顾客创造利润间的关系

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的效率(续) 物料管理

{将投入品和成分放入制造设施,经过制造将投入品和成分放入制造设施经过制造过程制成成品,再通过分销系统到达终端用户。用户

准时制((JIT)) 库存系统

供应链管理{{

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的效率(续) 研发战略

{设计易于制造的产品

流程创新{

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的效率(续) 人力资源战略:员工的生产力{

{

{

{招聘培训自我管理的团队奖励绩效

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的效率(续) 信息系统和互联网

{自动化的互动

企业与顾客

企业与供应商

公司结构、文化、战略领导风格和控制系统决定了所有其他价值创造活动发生的背景环境 公司基本架构{

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

价值创造职能在实现卓越效率中的基本角色

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的品质

实现卓越的可靠性

{全面质量管理(TQM)

提高质量可以降低成本

提高质量可以提高生产力

改善质量可以扩大市场份额和提高价格 企业赢利能力获得提高

企业创造出更多的职位

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

全面质量管理的步骤

清晰的商业模式任何错误、缺陷都是不可接受的和必须消除的。主管技能的提高创造员工不害怕报告问题和乐于提出改善建议的环境。工作标准不仅包括数量,还应当包括品质要求,培训员工掌握新技术,适应工作环境的变化。改善品质需要全体员工的奉献改善品质需要全体员工的奉献。

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

不同职能部门在实施TQM 中的角色

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实施提高可靠性的方法

建立组织对品质的承诺专注于客户找出测量品质的方法设立目标,提供激励寻求员工的投入找出缺陷跟踪到源头同供应商协作设计易于制造的产品打破职能间的壁垒

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

同产品相关的属性

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的品质(续) 开发卓越的属性

{

{

{

{了解顾客最重视哪些属性?在产品和相关服务的设计中包含这些重要的属性确定对哪些重要属性进行推广如何在顾确定对哪些重要属性进行推广,如何在顾客头脑中对这些属性进行定位关注竞争改善原有属性开发新的属性关注竞争,改善原有属性,开发新的属性Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的创新 通过创新能够

{

{

{获得新的更好地满足顾客需求的产品提高现有产品的品质降低成本

由于创新可能被模仿,因此必须进行持由于创新可能被模仿因此必须进行持续的创新成功的新产品开发是卓越的赢利能力的主要驱动因素

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

创新的高失败率 不确定性导致失败{量子式创新和增量式创新

商业化过程中的失误定位错误技术短视症上市速度太慢

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的创新(续) 基于创新的企业竞争力

{建立基础和应用研究技术

项目选择与管的流程项目选择与管理的流程{

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

开发漏斗

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的创新

基于创新的企业竞争力(续)

{

{

{跨职能整合产品开发团队部分重叠的发流程部分重叠的开发流程

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

时间顺序的开发流程和部分重叠的开发流程

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

不同职能部门在卓越创新中的角色

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

实现卓越的客户响应

以客户为中心

{

{

{领导员工的态度将客户带进公司

定制化

响应时间 满足顾客的需求{{

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing

不同职能部门在实现卓越客户响应中的基本角色

Developed by: Renjin Sun, School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing


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