20**年职称英语教材新增文章_理工类

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第八篇 What Is a Dream?

For centuries, people have wondered about the strange things that they dream about. Some psychologists say that this nighttime activity of the mind has no special meaning. Others,however, think that dreams are an important part of our lives. In fact, many experts believe that dreams can tell us about a person’s mind and emotions.

Before modern times, many people thought that dreams contained messages from God. It was only in the twentieth century that people started to study dreams in a scientific way.

The Austrian psychologist, Sigmund Freud1,scientifically. In his famous book, The interpretation of Dreamsthoughts, and fears that they are afraid to express in real life.

The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung2On the other hand, themselves.

crime.

time to develop.

the world, including both modern and traditional ones.

world.

词汇:

psychologist / saɪˈkɔlədʒɪst / n.心理学家

psychiatrist /sai' kaiətrɪst/ n.精神病学家(医生) Austrian / ˈɔstrɪən / adj.奥地利的 gender / ˈdʒendə / n.性别

注释:

1.Sigmund Freud西格蒙德•弗洛伊德(1856—1939),犹太人,奥地利精神病医生及精神分析

学家。精神分析学派的创始人。他认为被压抑的欲望绝大部分是属于性的,性的扰乱是精神病的根本原因。著有《性学三论》《梦的释义》《图腾与禁忌》《日常生活的心理病理学》《精神分析引论》《精神分析引论新编》等。

2.Carl Jung:卡尔•荣格,瑞士著名精神分析专家,分析心理学的创始人。

3.For example, the people in men’s dreams are often other men, and the dreams often involve

fighting. This is not true of women’s dreams.例如,男人做梦会梦到男人,并且常与打斗有关;

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女人做梦与男人则不同。

练习:

1.Not everyone agrees that dreams are meaningful.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

2.According to Freud, people dream about things that they cannot talk about.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

3.Jung believed that dreams did not help one to understand oneself.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

4.In the past, people believed that dreams involved emotions.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

5.According to Domhoff, babies do not have the same ability to dream as adults do.

A Right B Wrong C 6.Men and women dream about different things.

A Right B Wrong C 7.Scientists agree that dreams predict the future.

A Right B Wrong C 答案与题解

1.A 2.A 想法或恐惧。此句与本叙述一致。

3.B 第四段的第二句和第三句:message to the dreamer.He thought people (他认为人们通过思考所做的梦能够更好地了解自己)

4.C 文中没有提及。

5.A 依据第六段,Domhoff

6.A

7.B

*第十篇 The Biology of Music

However, the songs of animals, such as birds and whales, are very limited. It is also true that humans, not animals, have developed musical instruments. 1

Music is strange stuff. It is clearly different from language. However, people can use music to communicate things — especially their emotions. When music is combined with speech in a song, it is a very powerful form of communication. But, biologically speaking, what is music?

If music is truly different from speech, then we should process music and language in different parts of the brain. The scientific evidence suggests that this is true.

Sometimes people who suffer brain damage lose their ability to process language. However, they don’t automatically lose their musical abilities. For example, Vissarion Shebalin, a Russian composer,had a stroke in 1953. It injured the left side of his brain. He could no longer speak or understand speech. He could, however, still compose music until his death ten years later. On the other hand,sometimes strokes cause people to lose their musical ability, but they can still speak and

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understand speech. This shows that the brain processes music and language separately.

By studying the physical effects of music on the body,scientists have also learned a lot about how music influences the emotions. But why does music have such a strong effect on us? That is a harder question to answer. Geoffrey Miller, a researcher at University College, London, thinks that music and love have a strong connection. Music requires special talent, practice, and physical ability. That’s why it may be a way of showing your fitness to be someone’s mate. For example, singing in tune or playing a musical instrument requires fine muscular control. You also need a good memory to remember the notes. And playing or singing those notes correctly suggests that your hearing is in excellent condition. Finally, when a man sings to the woman he loves (or vice versa), it may be a way of showing off.

However, Miller’s theory still doesn’t explain why certain combinations of sounds influence our emotions so deeply. For scientists,this is clearly an area that needs further research.

词汇:

automatically adv.自动地

note / nəʊt/n.音符 stroke /strəʊk/n.中风

注释:

1.:人研制出了乐器,

而动物则不能。Develop:研制,例如:科学家们正在研发新药用以治疗癌症。

练习:

1.Humans, but not animals, can sing.

A Right B C Not mentioned

2.A Right B C Not mentioned

3.A Right C Not mentioned

4.A Right C Not mentioned

5.A Right Wrong C Not mentioned

6.A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

7.A B Wrong C Not mentioned

1.B It is true that some animals can sing (and many birds sing better than a lot

of people).可以看出有些动物会唱歌,而不只人类会唱歌。

2.A 第三段的第三句:However, people can use music to communicate things — especially their

emotions.这句清楚表明,人们可以用音乐来表达情感。

3.B 第四段说明:科学证明人们用大脑的不同区域处理语言和音乐。在第五段,作者用

Vissarion Shebalin的例子进一步说明人脑处理语言和音乐的位置不同,Shebalin中风以后不能讲话也听不懂别人的话,但他却能创作乐曲。

4.A 第六段的第四句:Geoffrey Miller, a researcher at University College,London,thinks that

music and love have a strong connection.这句说明Miller对音乐和爱(情感)的关系进行了研究,他得出的结论是:音乐和爱有密切的关联。

5.C 文中没有提及创作乐曲是否困难。

6.B 第六段有一句:You also need a good memory to remember the notes.此句说明必须具备好

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的记忆力记音符才能唱得符合调子。

7.A 最后一段讲的是:科学家们需要做更多的研究才能解释为什么有些声音影响我们的情

感会如此之深。也就是说,科学家不能全部解释音乐对人类的影响。

+第十一篇 Bill Gates: Unleashing Your Creativity

I’ve always been an optimist and I suppose it is rooted in1 my belief that the power of creativity and intelligence can make the world a better place.

For as long as I can remember, I’ve loved learning new things and solving problems. So when I sat down at a computer for the first time in seventh grade, I was hooked. It was a clunky old teletype machine and it could barely do anything compared to the computers we have today.2 But it changed my life.

When my friend Paul Allen and I started Microsoft 30 years ago,world. And they have.

Computers have transformed how we learn,do. He calls it “tap-dancing to work”4didn’t know you could do that with a PC5! ”

6. There are still far too many people in 7 improving health and education in a way that can help as many people as possible.

9 the children’s lives10 and it’s happening every day. We’re seeing new drugs for deadly diseases, ,and new attention paid to the health problems in the developing world.

problems, we're going to make some amazing achievements in all these areas in my lifetime.

词汇:

unleash / ʌnˈli:ʃ / vt.解开;放纵;使自由

inspire / ɪnˈspaɪə(r) / vt.鼓舞

optimist /'Dptɪmɪst/ n.乐观主义者

incredible / ɪn'kredəbl/ adj.难以置信的

clunky (clonky) /'klʌnkɪ/ adj.发出沉闷金属声

curiosity /ˌkjuərɪ'Dsɪtɪ/ n.好奇心

inventiveness n.发明创造的能力 teletype /'telɪtaɪp/ (teletype-writer) n.电传打字机 poignant / ˈpɔɪnjənt / adj.令人悲痛的,可怜的 tragic /'traed3ɪk/ adj.悲剧的,悲惨的 vision /'vɪ3n/ n.想象;幻想;美景 immense /I'mens/ adj.巨大的

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注释:

1.be rooted in:扎根于;深深地存在于

2.It was a clunky old teletype machine and it could barely do anything compared to the computers

we have today.那是一台笨重的旧式电传打字机,跟我们今天的电脑相比几乎干不了什么事。本句中,barely意为almost not;compare to在美国英语中也可以等同于compare with(与……相比)。

3.They’re helping us build communities around the things we care about and to stay close to the

people who are important to us, no matter where they are.电脑帮助我们就我们所关心的事情建立一个交流的场所,并且与那些我们认为对我们有重要意义的人密切相处,不管他们身在何处。care about指不管喜欢或不喜欢的事情都很关心、介意、在乎、计较。

4.“tap-dancing to work”:“跳着踢踏舞工作”。tap原意是“叩击、轻敲”;是“踢踏

舞”。这里实际意思是“(手指)轻轻敲击键盘的工作”。

5.PC (personal computer):个人计算机

6.our creativity and intelligence to work to improve our world.

7.go unmet:得不到满足。在这里go是系动词,unmet

8.commit to此处意为承诺,保证做某事。

9.no less... than:和 一样,不亚于……

而且要改

善这些孩子们的命运,其实不难。此处itto make an immense difference in these children’s lives。

练习:

1.A Right BC Not mentioned

2.A Right C Not mentioned

3.A Right C Not mentioned

4.A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

5.A B Wrong C Not mentioned

6.A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

7.Bill Gates will leave only a small portion of his wealth for his children.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

答案与题解:

1.A文章第三段中比尔•盖茨说,当他念七年级时,电脑就是冰箱那么大小。

2.A文章第三段比尔•盖茨说,他30年前与Paul Allen一起创办微软公司时就梦想一桌一机、

一户一机,而且从其他各段也可以看到他对电脑有很多的期待。

3.B从第七段第二句可以看到作这样比较的是他的朋友Warren Buffett,而不是他自己。

4.B在倒数第三段,比尔•盖茨已经明确说,所有这些儿童的死亡都一样令人伤心和悲痛,没

有什么区别。

5.C文章没有提到他给慈善机构捐款的事。

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6.A倒数第四段比尔•盖茨认为他一生好运,就理应回报社会,所以他和他的妻子做出了承诺,

要帮助尽可能多的人改善医疗和教育条件。

7.C文章没有提到。

+第十四篇 Stage Fright1

Fall down as you come onstage. That’s an odd trick. Not recommended. But it saved the pianist Vladimir Feltsman when he was a teenager back in Moscow. The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic,2 Mr. Feltsman said, “ All my fright was gone. I already fell. What else could happen?”

Today, music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that deal with performance techniques and career preparation. There are a variety of strategies that musicians can learn to fight stage fright and its symptoms: icy fingers, shaky limbs, racing heart, blank mind.3

4out,you’re jittery,public often, simply for the experience.

these ‘please don’t kill me’ performers to think of the audience as a judge.

,says Dorothy Delay, achieve.

When Lynn Harrell was 20,5 Recovery, he said, ,and that an 6Actually,词汇:

veteran / ˈvetərən / adj.经验丰富的

jittery / ˈdʒɪtəri / adj.紧张不安的

mentor / ˈmenˌtɔ: / n.指导者

soprano / səˈprprɑ:nəʊ / n.女高音;女高音歌

手 cellist/ ˈtʃelɪst / n.大提琴演奏家 abdominal / æbˈdɑmənəl / adj.腹部的 fallible/ ˈfæləbəl / adj.易犯错误的 tenor /'tenə/ n.男高音

注释:

1.Stage Fright:舞台恐惧

2.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance

panic…资深大提琴家Mstislav Rostropovich故意把Vladimir Feltsman绊倒,因而治愈了他的上台前的恐惧症。cure somebody of something (illness, problem):医治好病(解决问题)

第四部分 阅读理解7

3.… its symptoms:icy fingers, shaky limbs, racing heart, blank mind:舞台恐惧的症状有手冰凉、

身体颤抖、心跳加快和大脑一片空白。

4.Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice, from basics like learning pieces inside

out :老师和心理学家提出了方方面面的建议,一些基础知识,比如将演奏曲目烂熟于心…… inside out: in great detail详细地,从里到外地

5.I came to a point where I thought,“If I have to go through this to play music, I think I’m going to

look for another job. ”我曾经一度认为,如果搞音乐就必须经过克服舞台恐惧这一关的话,这项工作不能做。

6.Recovery, he said, involved developing humility-recognizing that whatever his talent, he was

fallible, and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.不舞台恐惧意味着提高谦卑感,即认识到不管你多有才,你也会出错,一个有瑕疵的音乐会也绝对不是世界末日。

练习:

1.A Right B Wrong C 2.There are many signs of stage fright.

A Right B Wrong C 3.A Right B Wrong 4.A Right B Wrong Not mentioned

5.A Right B Wrong C 6.A Right B C Not mentioned

7.A Right B C Not mentioned

答案与题解:

1.B 被Mstislav Rostropovich绊倒后,他的舞台

2.A 片空白。

3.B

4.A some excitement is natural, even necessary for dynamic

5.C

6.A extreme demands就

是expect too much of them的意思。

7.B 第七段讲的是:不只年轻艺术家有舞台恐惧症,钢琴家Vladimir Horowitz和男高音Franco

Corelli亦不能幸免。Never一词不恰当。

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第二十九篇 I’ll Be Bach

Composer David Cope is the inventor of a computer program that writes original works of classical music. It took Cope 30 years to develop the software. Now most people can’t tell the

第四部分 阅读理解8

difference between music by the famous German composer J. S. Bach (1685-1750) and the Bach-like compositions from Cope’s computer.

It all started in 1980 in the United States, when Cope was trying to write an opera. He was having trouble thinking of new melodies, so he wrote a computer program to create the melodies. At first this music was not easy to listen to. What did Cope do? He began to rethink how human beings compose music. He realized that composers,brains work like big databases. First, they take in all the music that they have ever heard. Then they take out the music that they dislike. Finally, they make new music from what is left. According to Cope, only the great composers are able to create the database accurately, remember it, and form new musical patterns from it.

Cope built a huge database of existing music. He began with hundreds of works by Bach. The software analyzed the data:it broke it down into smaller pieces and looked for patterns. It then combined the pieces into new patterns. Before long, the program could compose short Bach-like works. They weren’t good, but it was a start.

his own work, to the database.

A few years later,Cope’s computer program, called “Emmy”,composing these days!

词汇:

original/əˈrɪdʒənəl / adj.有独创性的

collaboration / kəˌlæbəˈreɪʃən / n.合作 n.评论 n.反馈

注释

J. S. Bach约翰•塞巴斯蒂安•,1685年3月31日一1750年7月28日)“西方‘现代音乐’之父”

练习:

1.A B

C D 2.By developing a computer software,David cope aimed ______.

A to be like Bach

B to study Bach

C to write an opera

D to create a musical database

3.What did cope realize about a great composer’s brain?

A It forms new musical patterns all by itself

B It writes a computer program

C It can recognize any music patterns

D It creates an accurate database

4.Who is Emmy?

A a database

第五部分 补全短文9

B a computer software

C a composer who helped David

D an opera

5.We can infer from the passage that ______.

A David Cope is a computer programmer.

B David Cope loves music.

C Bach’s music helped him a lot.

D Emmy did much more work than a composer.

答案与题解:

1.A 第一段的第一句:David Cope发明了一个可以编写出古典音乐的电脑软件。

2.C 从第二段的第一句可以看出,David编写电脑软件的目的是写歌剧。A、B和D都属于

创作歌剧的一部分。

3.D 进行准确的构建、记忆而后创作出新的音乐形式。

4.B 从第五段第一句可知Emmy是一计算机软件。

5.D 从本文第一句可知David、C内容

没有提及;从本文的第五段和第六段可知,Emmy大大提高了句,大部分困难的工作都由Emmy

第五部分 第四篇 adapt to a second language.1 2 (magnetic resonance imaging) scanner to , like Kim,3, which is 3, which is thought to process meaning. what language they were speaking. ____3____

People who learned a second language as children used the same region in Broca’s area for both their first and second languages. People who learned a second language later in life used a different part of Broca’s area for their second language. ____4____ Hirsch believes that when language is first being programmed in young children, their brains may mix the sounds and structures of all languages in the same area. Once that programming is complete, the processing of a new language must be taken over by a different part of the brain.

A second possibility is simply that we may acquire languages differently as children than we do as adults. Hirsch thinks that mothers teach a baby to speak by using different methods involving touch, sound, and sight. ____5____

词汇:

第五部分 补全短文10

学家

unique / ju:ˈni:k / adj.独特的

disrupt / disˈrʌpt /使中断 immigrate / ˈɪmɪˌgreɪt / vt.使移居入境 scanner / ˈskænə / n.扫描仪 bilingual / baɪˈlɪŋgw(ə) l / adj.具备双语能力的

神经系统科neuroscientist /'njʊərəʊ'saɪəntɪst / n.

注释:

1.Now he speaks it fluently, and he had a unique opportunity to see how our brains adapt to a

second language.现在他说一口流利的英语,并且有一独特的机会来审视我们的大脑是如何适应第二语言的。adapt to:适应

2.MRI (magnetic resonance imaging):磁共振成像

3.Bmca’s area产生。与Wernicke’s area脑(通常位于左侧),这是由于大多数人(97%)是右利的缘故。1861医生保罗。布罗卡(Paul Broca,1824—1880)一区域,位于大脑皮层额下回后部的44、45 练习:

A But their use of Broca’s area was different.

B C How does Hirsch explain this difference?

D E F 答案与题解:

1.F 根据本空的后一句:they found evidence与discovery相呼应。

2.B 依据本空的后一句The

3.A 整段讲的是Kim得出两组被试都用Wernicke’s area

Broca’s area的情况。

4.C Broca’s area相同的地带;而成人学习第

不同的地带。后面都是Hirsch对这一现象的解释;He believes…

5.E Hirsch认为,

Different是一关键词,

第十篇 How Deafness Makes It Easier to Hear

Most people think of Beethoven’s hearing loss as an obstacle to composing music. However, he produced his most powerful works in the last decade of his life when he was completely deaf.

This is one of the most glorious cases of the triumph of will over adversity1, but his biographer, Maynard Solomon, takes a different view. ____1____. In his deaf world Beethoven could experiment, free from the sounds of the outside world, free to create new forms and harmonies.

Hearing loss does not seem to affect the musical ability of musicians who become deaf. They continue to “hear” music with as much, or greater, accuracy than if they were actually hearing it being played.

____2____. He described a fascinating phenomenon that happened within three months: “my former musical experiences began to play back to me. I couldn’t differentiate between what I heard

第五部分 补全短文11

and real hearing. After many years, it is still rewarding to listen to these play backs, to ‘ hear’ music which is new to me and to find many quiet accompaniments for all of my moods. ”

How is it that the world we see,touch,hear,and smell is both “out there” and at the same time within us? There is no better example of this connection between external stimulus and internal perception than the cochlear implant3. ____3____. However, it might be possible to use the brain’s remarkable power to make sense of the electrical signals the implant produces.

When Michael Edgar first “switched on” his cochlear implant, the sounds he heard were not at all clear. Gradually, with much hard work, he began to identify everyday sounds. For example, “The insistent ringing of the telephone became clear almost at once.”

The primary purpose of the implant is to allow communication with others. When people spoke to Eagar, he heard their voices “coming through like a long-distance telephone call on a poor connection.” But when it came to his beloved music, the implant was of no help.4 ____4____. He said, “I play the piano as I used to and hear it in my head at the same time. The movement of my fingers and the feel of the keys give added ‘ clarity’ to hearing in my head.5”

Cochlear implants allow the deaf to hear again in a way that is not perfect,their lives. Beethoven as he composed his Ninth Symphony at the end of his life.

词汇:

obstacle / ˈɔbstək(ə)l /n.障碍

biographer / baiˈɔɡrəfə / n.传记作者

insistent / ɪnˈsɪst(ə)nt / adj.连续的 adversity / :sɪt fascinate /ɪt 使着迷,使神魂颠倒 ʌmp(ə)nim(ə)nt / n. 伴奏 注释:

1.the triumph of will over adversity:用意志力成功战胜不幸

2.我不能分辨我听到的和真实的声

音有什么不同。

3.cochlear implant:人工耳蜗;耳蜗植入

4.但是,如果碰到钟爱的音乐,

5.“clarity” to hearing in my head.

练习:

A B C D E Beethoven produced his most wonderful works after he became deaf.

F Solomon argues that Beethoven’s deafness “heightened” his achievement as a composer. 答案与题解:

1.F 本段的开头讲:贝多芬的例子是一个意志力战胜耳聋的极好的例子。但是,他的传记

作家Maynard Solomon却持不同的意见。贝多芬的耳聋不是一种灾难;相反,对他成为作曲家起到了促进作用。后一句解释了耳聋如何使贝多芬更好地创作。

2.D 该句是本段的开头,根据后一句:他描述了在三个月之内发生的奇妙的现象:我先前

的音乐经历开始在我的脑海里回放。再有后一句的what I heard and real hearing可以判定D是恰当的。

3.A 依据前一句:只有人工耳蜗才能使外部刺激和内心感知联系起来(耳聋的人通过人工

耳蜗听到外部的声音)。人工耳蜗就是一种man-made device,后一句也是在讲人工耳蜗的

第五部分 补全短文12

功能。所以A是对的。

4.B 依据后一句的play the piano呼应When he wanted to appreciate music, Eagar played the

piano,可以断定答案为B。

5.C 前一句讲人工耳蜗的作用:它能使耳聋的人听到声音,尽管不完美,但改变了他们的

生活;Still表示转折,该句承上启下,虽然人工耳蜗能帮助耳聋的人,但谈到音乐的韵律时,听力是不相关的(听力不起作用)。所以后一句讲贝多芬在他生命的最后时刻创作第九交响乐时,无论多么完美的人工耳蜗对他来说都没有用。

第十五篇 A Memory Drug?

IT’S DIFFICULT TO IMAGINE MANY THINGS that people would welcome more than a memory-enhancing drug. ____1____ Furthermore, such a drug could help people remember past scientists learn more about memory, we are closing in on this tantalizing goal.1

2LTPextra copies of this gene showed more activity in their NMDA receptorsperformance on several different memory tasks — objects,and recalling a fear-inducing shock.

people — and that remains to be seen — treatments. ____3____ life?

____4____ ,such as a forget but can’t.4individuals. But could they also interfere with an individual’s ability to assimilate and come to terms with a difficult experience?5 ____5____

词汇:

tantalizing / ˈtæntəlaɪzɪŋ / adj.诱人的

synaptic / sɪˈnæptɪk / adj.(解剖学)突触的

steroid / ˈstɪərɔɪd / n.类固醇 onslaught / ˈɔnslɔ:t / n.大量 lucrative / ˈlu:krətɪv / adj.有利可图的 hit /hit / n.(演出等)成功

注释:

1.As scientists learn more about memory, we are closing in on this tantalizing goal.随着科学家们

对记忆了解增多,我们正接近这一诱人的目标。

第五部分 补全短文13

2.LTP&SNMDA:(Long-term Potentiation)给突触前纤维一个短暂的髙频剌激后,突触传递效

率和强度增加几倍且能持续数小时至几天保持这种增强的现象。LTP发现海马LTP可能是学习记忆的分子基础。1973年Bliss及其合作者,电刺激麻醉兔的内嗅皮层,使海马表层的穿通纤维兴奋,可在齿状回记录到场电位。先用高频电刺激几秒钟后,再用单个电刺激,记录到的部分场电位幅度大大超过原先记录的对照值,并可持续几小时,几天。这一现象称为长时程增强效应(LTP)。1983年发现NMDA(N—甲基一D—门冬氨酸)受体通道复合体在LTP过程中起重要作用,进一步深化了对LTP在大脑学习记忆中作用的理解。

3.a spatial layout:空间布局

4.Memory drugs might also help take the sting out of disturbing memories that we wish we could

forget but can’t:增强记忆药对我们想忘记却又不能的令人烦扰的记忆变得令人易于接受。 take the sting out of:使……易于被接受;使 ……令人感到愉快

5.difficult experience? 中的come to terms with:让步;屈服

练习:

A B C D E F long-term memory by helping to initiate LTP.

答案与题解:

1.B依据上一句的;下面应该对这一现

这一指示词起到了递进的

2.F前一句的关键词是gene、该研究基于早期连接LTP

3.A

4.C

5.D


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