动词的分类(含答案)

(八)动词的分类

01 命题趋势 考标导向化

近年来对动词的考查主要是动词的种类及各类动词的基本区别,动词的基本变化形式,常见的动词的词义辨析及短语动词的辨析,其中,动词和短语动词的辨析以及动词的基本变化形式是考查的重点和热点。预计2015年动词考查的趋势将是:在具体的语言环境中考查基础动词及其短语动词的辨析。

02 定义 概念清晰化

动词是表示人或事物动作和状态的词。按照其语法功能,动词分为行为动词、系动词、助动词及情态动词四类。行为动词又叫实义动词,分为及物动词(后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的动词), 不及物动词(本身意义不完整,其后不能接宾语的动词) ;系动词(不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语) ;助动词(本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和别的动词一起构成谓语的词,这类词表示时态、语态、语气等特征,帮助构成否定、疑问等) ;情态动词(本身有一定意义,但没有人称和数的变化,不能单独使用,必须和实义动词一起构成句子的谓语,表示说话者的情感、态度和语气) 。

03 知识归类 知识网络化

❶动词的种类

分类图解

动 功能及用法 本身含有实在意义,表示动作或状态,在句中能独立作谓语。

特例清单 1. 不及物动词要想接宾语,必须在不及物动词后加上适当的介词。如:

The baby is smiling at us.小孩正对着我们笑呢。

He died of hunger.他死于饥饿。

Please listen to the teacher carefully.请仔细听老师讲课。

2. 双宾语动词后面跟两个宾语,直接宾语为动词直接涉及的事物;间接宾语往往指涉及的人。间接宾语有时可放到后面去,由介词to 或for 引导,变成介词短语。

◆能接以to 引导的间接宾语的动词常见的有:bring,give,leave,lend,offer,pass,play,read,send,show,take,teach,tell,write 等。如:

Could you lend your dictionary to me?请你把你的字典借我用用好吗?

She passed the salt to him.她把盐递给了他。

◆能接以for 引导的间接宾语的动词常见的有:bring,build,buy,cook,cut,fetch,find,get,keep,make,order,save,pick,play,sing,take,win,write 等。如:

Mother cooks breakfast for us every day.母亲每天都为我们做早饭。

I’ll fetch a chair for you.我去给你拿一个凳子。

【题组训练】

( )1.(2014·眉山) —Who _____ the tennis game yesterday?

—Jack ,he _____ all the others.

A.beat;won B.won;won

C.beat;beat D.won;beat

( )2.(2014·河南)Choosing the right circle of friends will ____ us a lot of troubles,heartaches and possibly a life of deep regret.

A.save B.share C.keep D.bring

( )3.(2014·十堰) —Smart phones are more and more popular now.

—So they are.But they still _____ too much.

A.pay B .cost C.take D.spend

( )4.(2014·山西)During the World Cup ,a large number of soccer fans fly to Brazil.It has _____ a great place for fans to have fun.

A.made B.kept C.become

( )5.(2014·宿迁) —Tom is an honest boy,_______ he?

—Yes.We trust him all the time.

A.isn’t B.is C.does D.doesn’t

❷常见连系动词的用法

分类图解

常用连

系动词

be 是 I’m a girl with short hair. 词义 例句

become 成为,变得 Mike becomes interested in

Chinese.

turn 变得 Mr. White ’s face turned

red.

get

smell

sound

taste

stay 变得 闻起来 听起来 尝起来 保持 The weather is getting bad. The flowers smell nice. The plan sounds good. The soup tastes delicious. The shop stays open till 8 pm.

注意 1. 连系动词不能单独作谓语,其后必须接形

容词、名词或介词短语作表语。

2. 含连系动词(be除外) 的句子变疑问句时一

定要借助助动词do,does,did 等。

【题组训练】

( )6.(2014·眉山) —Shall we go for a walk?

— ______great.

A.Feels B.Sounds C.Turns D.Looks

( )7.(2014·荆州) —Do you like swimming in winter?

—Of course.The water _____ a bit cold at first,but then I am warm and full of energy.

A.feels B.tastes C.smells D.looks

( )8.(2014·河北)Mom is making dinner. It_____ so nice!

A.smells B.tastes C.feels D.sounds

( )9.(2014·宿迁) —Your trainers _____ colourful.

—Yes.And they are popular among young people.

A.feel B.smell C.taste D.look

( )10.(2014·乐山) —I can’t stand the smell of the stinking tofu.

—Would you like to have a try? It _____ quite delicious!

A.looks B.sounds C.tastes

❸情态动词的用法

分类图

情态 意义及用法 例句

动词

may 表示“请求许可”,意—May I go out and

思是“可以,可能”,play football?

其一般疑问句的否定—No,you

回答为mustn’t。 mustn’t.

表推测,意思是“可Mr.Li may be at

能”。 home.

can 表示“能力”,意思是Mike can speak a

(could) “能,会”,否定形式little Chinese.

为can’t,couldn’t。 I could ride the

bike when I was 6

years old.

用在疑问句中,表示Could you tell me

“征求意见”,could something about

比can 的语气更委婉、your school?

客气。

表推测,常用在否定句He can’t be at

和疑问句中。 home. He has gone

to Japan.

can 用于一般现在时及He can spell these

一般过去时两种时态,words.

be able to 可以用于各He has been able to

种时态。 draw pictures

already.

must 表示义务、命令或要You must be

求,意思是“必须,应careful next time. 该”,否定形式为You mustn’t take

mustn’t,意思是“不photos here.

应该,不允许”,表示

警告。

表示推测,意为“必He must be in the

定”。 room.

表示说话人的主观看I must go home now.

法。

must 引导的一般疑问—Must I finish

句,肯定回答时用the homework

must ,have to;否定today?

回答时用needn’t或—No,you

don’t have to。 needn’t/you

don’t have to.

need 表示“需要”,多用于He needn’t worry

否定句。 about it.

作实义动词,后接动词I’m very tired

不定式。 and I need to have a rest.

【题组训练】

( )11.(2014·台州) —Are you interested in shopping online?

——Not so much. We_____see real products but pictures.

A.shouldn’t B.can’t

C.mustn’t D.needn’t

( )12.(2014·威海) —Bob ,Where is Linda?

—She ________ be in the library.But I am not sure.

A.must B.may C.need D.has to

( )13.(2014·菏泽) —Look ,someone left a book.

—Oh ,yeah„This book_____ be Kitty’s. Only she likes to read this kind of books.

A.can B.must C.may D.might

( )14.(2014·福州) —Lisa ,hurry up! The bus is coming.

—Oh ,no. We ____ cross the street until the traffic lights turn green.

A.mustn’t B.needn’t C.should

( )15.(2014·江西)Last year I ______ drive.I used to take the bus.

A.could B.couldn’t

C.should D.shouldn’t

❹短语动词

分类图解

类别 实例 汉义

动 add up 加起来

词 break out 爆发

+ carry on 坚持下去;继续下去

副 change into 转换成;变成

词 clean up 清除;收拾干净

clear up 整理,收拾;(天气) 放晴

come back 回来;想起来

come down 落下来

come in 进入,进来

cut down 砍倒

cut off 切断

cut up 切碎

eat up 吃光,吃完

fall behind 落在„„后面;输给别人

find out 发现;查明

get along 取得进展

get together 聚会,联欢

get up 起床

give away 分发;赠送

give back 归还, 送回

give in 屈服

give out 分发;用完,耗尽

give up 放弃

go ahead 继续

go away 走开,离去

go on 继续

grow up 长大成人,成长

hand in 上交;交纳

hand out 分发

hold on 坚持;(打电话) 别挂断

keep on 继续(进行)

let in 让„„进来,放进

look ahead 向前看

look up 查找

pay back 偿还(借款等)

pick up 拾起,捡起;开车接;学

point out 指出,标明

put off 推迟

put on 穿;戴上;上演

put up 举起;张贴

start off 出发

stay up 熬夜

take off 脱下;起飞

turn down 声音调小

turn in 上交

turn off 关闭

wake up 唤醒,醒来

watch out 当心

work out 计算出动

词 agree with 赞同,同意(某人的看法)

+ arrive at/in 到达

介 ask for 请求;询问

词 base on 以„„为依据

belong to 属于

break into 破门而入

call for 需要;呼吁

care for 在乎,关心

come from 来自„„

deal with 处理;对付

depend on/upon 依靠;相信;依赖

get over 克服

get to 到达„„

go by 走过,经过

go over 仔细检查;复习

knock at 敲

laugh at 嘲笑„„

learn from 向„„学习

look after 照顾

look at 看„„,观看„„

look for 寻找

look like 看起来像

pass by

point to

quarrel with

stand for

stick to

talk about

think about

think of

wait for

+

+

词 add up to catch up with come up with 经过 指向„„ (和某人) 争吵 代表(某事物) ;支持 坚持 谈论,议论 考虑 想起,想出;认为 等待 加起来总计 赶上 想出 get along with 相处 go on with 继续进行 keep away from 远离 keep up with look

on/upon

look forward to 盼望

look out of

make up of

run out of 朝„„外看 由„„组成,构成 耗尽 跟上;和„„保持联系 down 看不起

注意:

对于动词+副词类的短语,如果是名词作宾语,那么这个名词既可以放在短语之间也可以放在短语的后面,但是如果是代词作宾语,则代词一定要放在短语之间。如:

He turned off all the lights when he left.当他离开时,他关上了所有的灯。

He picked it up and gave it to me.他捡起它,然后把它交给了我。

【题组训练】

( )16.(2014·咸宁) —When will your new book _______?

—It has not been decided yet.

A.find out B.come out

C.look up D.set up

( )17.(2014·山西) —Mum.I did best in our group discussion today.

—Well done! I _________ you.

A.am mad at B.am patient with

C.am proud of

( )18.(2014·河南)This bus doesn’t go to the train station.I’m afraid you’ll have to ______ at the library and take the A52.

A.take off B.put off

C.get off D.turn off

( )19.(2014·十堰) —The song Where did the time go _____ the old days and the love of family. —Sure.It’s my favorite song.

A.helps us out B.reminds us of

C.lets us down D.regards us as

( )20.(2014·安徽)As time _______,you’ll come to think of English as your friend and love it.

A.goes by B.runs out

C.takes off D.turns up

04 整合集训 反馈层级化

( )1.—Can I borrow your English book,please?

—Sure.But you must ______ it to me soon.

A.keep B.buy

C.return D.hold

( )2.—Have you ever listened to the song Baby?

—Yes,it _____ wonderful.All of us like it very much.

A.smells B.sounds C.looks D.tastes

( )3.—How about the silk skirt?

—It ______ soft!I’ll take it.

A.tastes B.sounds C.smells D.feels

( )4.After the serious illness,he finally _____ how important health is.

A.realized B.meant

C.added D.impressed

( )5.The old man’s eyesight isn’t very good.He often ______ Tim for Jim.

A.regards B.treats

C.mistakes D.thinks

( )6.—Why is Lily so popular among the students?

—Because she often_____us with help and care.

A.gives B.offers

C.provides D.supports

( )7.—Do you think Houston Rockets will beat Lakers?

—Yes.They have better players,so I ______ them to win.

A.hope B.think C.depend D.expect

( )8.—How long do you think the terrible weather will______?

—Why not listen to the weather report?

A.appear B.last C.change D.discover

( )9.Listen! The whole class is quiet now. It _____ that everyone falls asleep.

A.seems B.looks C.sounds D.gets

( )10.The children are making too much noise.I can’t ____ it.

A.stand B.hear C.consider D.know

( )11.Wow,the dish _____ delicious. Could you please tell me how to cook it?

A.keeps B.tastes C.sounds D.feels

( )12.—Why does Zhang Lei look unhappy?

—Because her best friend didn’t _____ her to go on a picnic.

A.make B.let

C.invite D.refuse

( )13.David _______ his friend’s invitation to the picnic in order to stay at home and have a good

rest.

A.expected B.refused

C.received D.told

( )14.—W ho’s that boy in the red coat?

—He is my new friend.Let me ______him to you.

A.introduce B.tell

C.promise D.say

( )15.—What about the picture over there?

—It ________ nice.

A.tastes B.gets C.looks D.sounds

( )16.—May I go to the cinema,Mum?

—Certainly.But you _____ be back by 11 o’clock.

A.can B.may C.must D.need

( )17.— ____I speak to May,please?

—I’m sorry she ____ come to the phone because she is busy now.

A.Might;won’t B.Can;mustn’t

C.May;can’t D.Could;shouldn’t

( )18.—I want to know if I ______ smoke here.

—No,you_______ .Could you see the sign “NO SMOKING” there?

A.can;needn’t B.must;can’t

C.shall;won’t D.can;mustn’t

( )19.My wife never remembers my telephone number. She always _______ look it up.

A.must B.should C.would D.has to

( )20.—_____ you pass me the dictionary,please?

—Sure.Here you are.

A.Could B.Need C.Must D.Might

( )21.—Must I go there with you?

—No,you____ .David ______ go with me.

A.mustn’t;can B.can’t;must

C.don’t;should D.needn’t;may

( )22.You ______ be careful when crossing the road—the traffic lights aren’t working.

A.might B.should C.could D.may

( )23.—Could I borrow your ruler?

—Yes,of course you _______.

A.will B.should C.can D.need

( )24.—I’ve taken someone else’ s green sweater by mistake.

—It _______ Henry’s.He always wears green.

A.has to be B.will be

C.mustn’t be D.could be

( )25.The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but luckily everyone _______ get out.

A.had to B.would

C.was able to D.could

( )26.—Is Paul coming by train?

—He should,but he _______.He likes driving his car.

A.can’t B.needn’t

C.may not D.mustn’t

( )27.—Isn’t that Ann’s husband over there?

—No,it _______ be him.I’m sure he doesn’t wear glasses.

A.can’t B.must not C.won’ t D.may not

( )28.Susan,you ______ leave all your clothes on the floor like this!

A.wouldn’t B.mustn’t

C.needn’t D.may not

( )29.—Listen!Someone is singing in the next room. Who____ it be? Is it Zhu Lei?

—No.It ______ be her.She is at school now.

A.will;may not B.must;mustn’t

C.may;can’t D.may;won’t

( )30.Susan’s parents have bought a large house with a swimming pool.It _______ be very expensive.

A.must B.can C.mustn’t D.can’t

( )31.—Do you know if he is still living?

—I’m not sure.I think he _______die in a battle in 1943.

A.have to B.should

C.must D.might

( )32.—You can sit and read the books here if you _____.

—Thank you very much.

A.can B.will C.may D.must

( )33.—Must I wash all the clothes this afternoon?

—No,you_______.

A.don’t have to B.mustn’t

C.can’t D.may not

( )34.—_______ the work be finished by the end of this week?

—Yes,it must.

A.Will B.Shall C.Need D.Can

( )35.—_______ I go there at once?

—No,I don’t think you ____ now.It’s still early.

A.Can;have to B.Do;need to

C.Need;must D.May;would

( )36.—Tom,it’s cold outside. _______your coat when you go out.

—OK,Mum.

A.Take off B.Take away

C.Put away D.Put on

( )37.I work very hard because I don’t want to______ .

A.let my parents down

B.let down my parents

C.let my parents to be disappointed

D.let my parents go

( )38.—When will Han Han’s new book ________?

—Sorry,I don’t know.Im looking forward to his new book,too.

A.come on B.come out

C.come in D.come over

( )39.—Great changes have taken place in this city.

—Right.Many modern buildings have been _______ these days.

A.turned up B.put up

C.shown up D.fixed up

( )40.Dont worry!Im sure you’ll _______ your classmates if you are kind and friendly to them.

A.catch up with B.agree with

C.get along well with D.make friends with

参考答案:

(八) 动词的分类

题组训练

1—5DABCA6—10BAADC11—15BBBAB 16—20BCCBA

整合集训

1—5CBDAC6—10CDBAA11—15BCBAC 16—20CCDDA21—25DBCDC26—30CABCA 31—35DBACC36—40DABBC


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